Electronic memory due to the minimization of dimensions, high data transfer speed, energy efficiency and the lack of mechanical elements, is becoming more and more popular every day.
We meet them practically in all portable devices.
However, mobility and its solutions are not without disadvantages, and they also run the risk of losing the stored content.
Due to the number of manufacturers, devices and practically individual writing methods for them, data recovery from this type of media in not easy.
As with other devices these failures include damage to the partition table or delete data caused by a system error, malware or, intentional or not, user action.
The most common symptom of these situations is empty media or system message need to format the device.
The most important thing in this situation is do not format the device or perform system-forced file repair procedures (like CHKDSK).
It is best in this case to make a binary copy of the medium to protect the unchanged content of the device and recover data from it.
Physical damage to flash memory can be divided into two categories.
Mechanical damage of USB plugs that have been broken from the electronic board, cold soldered caused by faulty assembly of components at the factory or resulting from overheating of the device and physical and software damage controllers.
While in the first two situations it is possible to repair the device and restore it to operation, in the last case content should be read directly from the memory module or modules, and then reconstructioned to make it suitable for logical data extraction.
In the case of monolithic memory, a so-called technological pinout is necessary for data recovery.
Manufacturers of Data Recovery solutions provide extensive databases of developed pinout descriptions for such devices.
However, due to a very large number of manufacturers and device versions, it often happens that this pinout is modified or often completely changed.
In such cases, it is necessary to develop a new description.
This process involves connecting all available signal lines, reading the signals using a logic analyzer and then decoding them.
Only after all the necessary signal lines have been found, can a raw memory reading be performed and the logical reconstruction begin.
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